Research Article|Articles in Press

Factors of Transurethral Incision Effectiveness for Ureteroceles in Pediatric Patients: A 28-Year, Single-Institution Retrospective Review

Published:February 27, 2023DOI:



      As a congenital anomaly, ureteroceles occur in 1 in 4000 children, and are usually diagnosed prenatally. However, there remains a lack of definite consensus on the optimal management of congenital ureteroceles.


      We evaluated factors associated with success of primary transurethral incision (TUI) in ureterocele pediatric patients.


      Demographic and clinical information for 120 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with congenital ureterocele between 1993-2021 at our institution were obtained through retrospective chart review. Data were analyzed using Fisher’s exact tests, t-tests, and logistic regression with a significance threshold of p<0.05. The primary outcome of ureterocele management was TUI effectiveness, defined by no need for further surgical intervention.


      Of the 120 patients (39 boys, 81 girls) with ureteroceles, 75 patients (22 boys, 53 girls) met our inclusion criteria of undergoing initial TUI ureterocele. Initial TUI was effective in 51/75 patients (68.0%). We analyzed possible correlative factors for TUI efficacy, which are summarized in . Simplex system was a significant predictor of primary TUI efficacy (85% effective in simplex systems, 62% in duplex systems). Prior urinary tract infection, prenatal diagnosis, and electrocautery technique were all associated with an increased risk of needing additional surgeries after primary TUI.


      Simplex system was the most significant predictor of effective primary TUI, and the absence of preoperative vesicoureteral reflux was also significant. Prenatal diagnosis, preoperative febrile urinary tract infection, higher preoperative hydronephrosis grade, and the use of electrocautery were all associated with decreased primary TUI efficacy. Study limitations include that it was a retrospective chart review, and cohort size was limited by incomplete urology follow-up and operative records.


      Initial TUI was an effective procedure for the majority of our pediatric ureterocele patients, a higher success rate compared to other cohorts. Patients with a simplex system were more likely to have an effective first TUI than patients with duplex systems, as were patients without preoperative reflux. Although not statistically significant, our data suggest prior UTI, prenatal diagnosis, higher preoperative hydronephrosis grade, and the use of electrocautery may be associated with having additional surgeries.


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