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Ureteral Stricture after Pediatric Kidney Transplantation: Is There a Role for Percutaneous Antegrade Ureteroplasty?

Published:January 18, 2023DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2023.01.010

      Summary

      Introduction

      Ureteral obstruction following pediatric kidney transplantation occurs in 5-8% of cases. We describe our experience with percutaneous antegrade ureteroplasty for the treatment of ureteral stricture in pediatric kidney transplant patients.

      Methods

      We retrospectively reviewed all pediatric kidney transplantation patients who presented with ureteral stricture and underwent percutaneous antegrade ureteroplasty at our institution from July 2009 to July 2021. Variables included patient demographics, timing of presentation, location and extent of stricture, ureteroplasty technique and clinical outcomes. Our primary outcome was persistent obstruction of the kidney transplant.

      Results

      Twelve patients met inclusion criteria (4.2% of all transplants). Median age at time of ureteroplasty was 11.5 years (range: 3 to 17.5 years). Median time from kidney transplantation to ureteroplasty was 3 months. Patency was maintained in 50% of patients. Seven patients (58.3%) required additional surgery. Four patients developed vesicoureteral reflux. Patients with persistent obstruction had a longer time from transplant to ureteroplasty compared to those who achieved patency (19.3 vs 1.3 months, p=.0163). Of those treated within 6 months after transplantation, two patients (25%) required surgery for persistent obstruction (p=.06). All patients treated > 1 year after transplantation had persistent obstruction following ureteroplasty (p=.06).

      Conclusion

      Percutaneous antegrade ureteroplasty can be considered a viable minimally invasive treatment option for pediatric patients who develop early ureteral obstruction (<6 months) following kidney transplantation. In patients who are successfully treated with ureteroplasty, 67% can develop vesicoureteral reflux into the transplant kidney. Patients who fail early percutaneous ureteroplasty or develop obstruction >1 year after transplantation are best managed with surgical intervention.

      Keywords

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