Community-acquired (CA) infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)
producing Escherichia coli urinary tract infections (UTI) have become increasingly prevalent, posing a serious
threat to public health. Risk factors for ESBL UTI have not been extensively studied
in the pediatric population. We report findings from a case control study to identify
risk factors for CA ESBL-producing E. coli UTI in children.
Materials and method
A cohort of children with CA ESBL Escherichia coli UTI evaluated at a tertiary referral hospital from January 2014 through April 2021,
were matched 1:3 with control group of non-ESBL CA E. coli UTI based on age at first episode of non-ESBL UTI. To identify potential risk factors
for ESBL E. coli UTI, conditional logistic regression model was utilized accounting for age matching.
Univariate models were fitted for each clinical risk factor. Factors found to be significantly
associated with ESBL UTI were simultaneously included in a single model to check for
associations adjusted for all other factors.
On conditional multivariate analyses for univariate testing, male sex (P = 0.021), history of Urology care (P = 0.001), and antibiotic treatment within 30 days prior to positive culture (P = 0.004) were identified as independent risk factors for CA ESBL E. coli UTI. Comorbidity scores were assigned to each patient according to pediatric comorbidity
index (PCI); children with ESBL UTI were more likely to have higher morbidity risk
than non-ESBL UTI children (P < 0.001). From the logistic model, the higher the morbidity scores, the more likely
children will have CA ESBL UTI (P < 0.001).
Identifying risk factors for ESBL-producing E. coli UTI in children is important because of limited therapeutic options. This knowledge
is essential for clinical decision making and to develop intervention strategies to
reduce disease burden. Our study found that although females have an increased predisposition
to UTIs, we observed that the male sex is an independent risk factor for ESBL E. coli UTI. This finding warrants further investigation to determine underlying cause. Because
of the retrospective design of the study, collection of data from a single center,
and differences in characteristics between patient populations, treatments, and prescribing
patterns in the community, this study may not be generalizable.
Summary TableDemographic data for 394 patients with E. coli Urinary Tract Infection.
*For continuous variables, t test and Wilcoxon two-sample test are used.