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Low-dose every-second-day LHRH treatment following bilateral orchidopexy in children with bilateral cryptorchidism may improve their fertility outcome

Published:October 13, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2022.10.017

      Summary

      Introduction/Background

      Currently the standard treatment for bilateral cryptorchidism is bilateral surgical orchidopexy. Whether a hormonal treatment should be routinely administered postoperatively to increase fertility is debatable. Low-dose postoperative luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) can increase spermatogonial numbers, but the effect of native LHRH (Kryptocur®) on adult fertility is unclear.

      Objective

      To determine if low-dose every-second-day postoperative LHRH administration in children with bilateral cryptorchidism improves fertility in adulthood and if Nistal testicular histological grading could guide the decision to administer LHRH.

      Study design Methods

      All patients, actually at least 16yr of age, that underwent a bilateral orchidolysis and orchidopexy for bilateral cryptorchidism (surgery between 1997 and 2018) were contacted and offered a clinical exam, hormone levels, sperm analysis, and a scrotal ultrasound. At the original surgery, testicular biopsy was performed (if 60% of the tubuli contain >1 spermatogonia, this is normal = Nistal-1, if 30–60% filled = Nistal-2, if <30% = Nistal-3 and if Sertoli only = Nistal-4) and if in at least one testis impaired. A low dose native LHRH treatment was offered to the patients, as this treatment is known to increase the number of spermatogonia in a short term. Kryptocur® (LHRH, Gonadorelin, Hoechst®) was prescribed and dosed at 200 μg (one spray in one nostril) every other day for 6–8 months.

      Results and limitations

      Forty-two men were eligible for this study. 20/42 accepted the invitation for a clinical and hormonal evaluation. 16/20 men accepted the invitation for an additional sperm analysis. Fourteen of 20 men received low-dose LHRH postoperatively in a nonrandomized manner. Three men had Nistal grade 1, eight grade 2, seven grade 3, and two had grade 4. Inhibin B levels were higher in men with Nistal 1 and 2 compared with Nistal 3 and 4 P ≤ 0.037). Severe oligospermia/azoospermia (<1 × 106/ejaculate) was observed in 33% of the treated group vs 67% of the untreated group (P ≤ 0.036.)

      Discussion and conclusions

      Summary figure
      Graphical AbstractAdministration of a postoperative low-dose every-second-day LHRH (Kryptokur®) treatment in boys with bilateral undescended testes can rescue their fertility potential to a considerable degree and reduce the development of azoospermia. The main study limitations are the non-random administration of LHRH and heterogeneity among LHRH regimens.

      Keywords

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