Racial and ethnic disparities in the timing of orchiopexy for cryptorchidism

Published:September 10, 2022DOI:



      Many children do not undergo surgery for cryptorchidism in a timely fashion, increasing risk of infertility and malignancy. Racial and ethnic disparities in surgery timing has been suggested in other specialties, but has not been well-explored in Pediatric Urology.


      Our aim was to investigate the association of race and ethnicity with age at orchiopexy.

      Materials and methods

      We performed a retrospective cohort study of individuals <18 years of age as captured in the NSQIPP PUF from 2012 to 2016. Those with cancer were excluded. The primary outcome of interest was age at time of surgery. Secondary outcome was the proportion of individuals undergoing surgery by recommended age. Generalized linear models and logistic regression models were created for the outcomes of interest.


      The median age at orchiopexy was 17.4 months (10.7, 43.0) and overall, 51% of subjects underwent orchiopexy by 18 months of age. Non-Hispanic white individuals were most likely to have undergone orchiopexy by 18 months of age, at 56%, compared with only 44% of non-Hispanic black individuals (p < 0.001). When adjusting for co-morbidities and developmental delay, Hispanic patients underwent orchiopexy 5 months later than white patients, on average, and black patients had a delay of 7 months compared to white patients.


      These data suggest that orchiopexy is happening at younger ages compared to prior large-scale studies. However, minority patients are on average older at time of orchiopexy, potentially increasing future risk of infertility or malignancy. While an estimated average delay of 5–7 months may not seem high, studies suggest there is an appreciable change in risk with a 6-month delay. Patient, provider, and system-level factors likely all contribute, and these need to be further elucidated.


      Summary Figure 1


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