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46 XY disorder of sex development (DSD) due to 5 alpha (SRD5A2) deficiency – Experience from a multidisciplinary Pediatric Gender Clinic

      Summary

      Background

      SRD5A2 deficiency leads to incomplete masculinization of individuals with a 46 XY karyotype. A definitive diagnosis in early infancy facilitates decisions concerning choice of sex of rearing and management.

      Aim

      To review the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of children with 46 XY DSD due to SRD5A2 deficiency at a Paediatric Gender Clinic.

      Study design and methods

      Retrospective review of cases of SRD5A2 deficiency (2000–15) managed with a standard protocol at a multidisciplinary clinic. Demographic data, clinical presentation, physical findings, investigations (hormonal profile, imaging, genitoscopy), psychological evaluation (child, family), medical and surgical management, outcome and follow up were collated and analyzed.

      Results

      There were 12 cases aged 3 days–14 years at presentation, 3 had parental consanguinity. Eight were reared as males and 4 as females. Specialist referral was sought for hypospadias (5), atypical genitalia (5) or incongruent pubertal masculinization (2). All had chordee, symmetrical inguinoscrotal gonads, rugose labioscrotum and proximal hypospadias (perineoscrotal −9, perineal −3). Both pubertal cases had significant masculinization and no gynecomastia. The median testosterone/dihydrotestosterone ratio was 22.1(IQR-8.6-55.7). Despite a classical phenotype, four (2 prepubertal, 2 pubertal) had a ratio <10. Genitoscopy showed urogenital sinus remnant (4) and hypoplastic verumontanum (5). Sex reassignment was done in 4. Surgical management was staged and completed by 4 years in those with infantile presentation. Besides correction of chordee and urethroplasty in 11, other procedures included orchidopexy (5), excision of a urogenital sinus remnant (4) and correction of penoscrotal transposition (4). The urethroplasty was single staged in 3. All operated cases were followed up (mean age at last follow up - 10.63 years, mean follow up period - 7.25 years). The overall cosmetic result was satisfactory, but the phallic structure remained relatively small across prepubertal period. Uroflowmetry curves were normal in 9. All showed penile tumescence/erection and two peripubertal cases had typical secondary sexual characters. All cases, including those with sex reassignment, have a well-adjusted male psyche.

      Discussion and conclusion

      The diagnosis, management and longitudinal follow up of cases of SRD5A2 deficiency at a multidisciplinary gender clinic is presented. Diagnostic dilemmas with low T/DHT ratios remained in a third of cases. Most were diagnosed in infancy and assigned a male sex of rearing, all underwent staged masculinizing genitoplasty. Those with sex reassignment also fared well with comprehensive management after family counseling.

      Keywords

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