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Is parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis associated with fewer infectious complications in stented, distal hypospadias repair?

      Summary

      Introduction

      Judicious use of antibiotics for surgical prophylaxis is important for reducing antimicrobial resistance while preventing infectious surgical complications. In the setting of pediatric distal hypospadias repairs, it is unclear if antibiotic surgical prophylaxis is beneficial.

      Objective

      The purpose of this study was to compare rates of infectious complications in pediatric subjects undergoing distal hypospadias repair who received any peri-operative antibiotics to those who did not.

      Study design

      This was a review of a retrospective cohort from a database of individuals undergoing hypospadias repairs evaluating whether they received peri-operative or post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis and determining the rate of infectious complications in those who did compared to those who did not receive antibiotic prophylaxis. Infectious complications were defined as surgical site infection (SSI) or urinary tract infection (UTI).

      Results

      There was no significant difference in infectious complication rates between individuals who received peri-operative parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis and those who did not. All subjects with infectious complications received post-operative oral antibiotic prophylaxis. There was one instance of C. difficile infection in a subject who received peri-operative parenteral antibiotics.

      Discussion

      Reducing antibiotic utilization without increasing infectious surgical complications is important in safely reducing antimicrobial resistance. In this study of pediatric distal hypospadias repair, peri-operative antibiotics did not demonstrate a clear benefit and post-operative oral antibiotics demonstrated no benefit in preventing infectious complications. Other studies evaluating peri- and post-operative antibiotics for pediatric hypospadias repair have also failed to demonstrate a benefit for antibiotics in preventing infections. Practitioners should reconsider the use of antibiotics in this setting.

      Conclusion

      Routine antibiotic prophylaxis does not appear beneficial for preventing infectious complications following uncomplicated, stented pediatric distal hypospadias repairs.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      BCH (Boston Children's Hospital), IRB (Institutional Review Board), MAGPI (meatal advancement and glanuloplasty), PO (Per Os), SSI (Surgical Site Infection), TIP (Tubularized Incised Plate), UTI (Urinary Tract Infection)
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