Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography, a possible candidate for the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux in children and adolescents; a systematic review and meta-analysis

Published:November 03, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2021.10.023

      Summary

      Introduction

      The diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography (ceVUS) in the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is still a subject of dispute.

      Objective

      Assessing the diagnostic value of ceVUS in VUR, performing a systematic review and meta-analysis.

      Methods

      An extensive search on Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases was conducted by the end of 2020. The inclusion criteria were studies on the diagnostic value of ceVUS for VUR. Two independent researchers summarized the included articles and the findings were reported as area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI).

      Results

      Finally, the data of 36 articles were included in the present meta-analysis (2768 children). The VUS assessment showed that 1297 of the cases were true positives, 3661 were true negatives, 398 were false positives and 169 were false negatives. The AUC, sensitivity and specificity of ceVUS with the first-generation contrast agent in the diagnosis of VUR in children and adolescents were obtained as 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95, 0.98), 0.92 (95% CI: 0.86, 0.96) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.95, 0.98), respectively. Moreover, AUC, sensitivity and specificity of ceVUS with the second-generation contrast agent were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95, 0.98), 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86, 0.97) and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86, 0.95).

      Conclusion

      The findings of the present study showed that diagnostic value of ceVUS with both first-generation and second-generation contrast agents for VUR, is in an excellent range. Although it seems that ceVUS may be applied as a radiation-free alternative to imaging techniques such as VCUG, the presence of 3% of false negatives in this test is a limitation. Since the lack of punctual management of VUR is associated with serious renal complications in children, future studies are recommended to be focused on the evaluation of the Benefit-risk evaluation of ceVUS.

      Keywords

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