A new biomarker (RENALASE) for the diagnosis of blunt renal trauma in an experimental study

  • Mehmet Saraç
    Correspondence
    Correspondence to: Dr. Mehmet Saraç, Departments of Pediatric, Surgery Firat University, School of Medicine, Elazig, 23119, Turkey, Tel.: +90 (424) 233 35 55; fax: +90 (424) 238 80 96
    Affiliations
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Firat University School of Medicine, Elazig, 23119, Turkey
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Tel.: +(90) 5057158716; fax: +(90) 4242388096.
    Unal Bakal
    Footnotes
    1 Tel.: +(90) 5057158716; fax: +(90) 4242388096.
    Affiliations
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Firat University School of Medicine, Elazig, 23119, Turkey
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    2 Tel.: +(90) 5066320100; fax: +(90) 4242388096.
    Tugay Tartar
    Footnotes
    2 Tel.: +(90) 5066320100; fax: +(90) 4242388096.
    Affiliations
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Firat University School of Medicine, Elazig, 23119, Turkey
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    4 Tel.: +(90) 5334934643; fax: +(90) 4242388096.
    Süleyman Aydin
    Footnotes
    4 Tel.: +(90) 5334934643; fax: +(90) 4242388096.
    Affiliations
    Department of Medical Biochemistry (Firat Hormones Research Group), School of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, 23119, Turkey
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    3 Tel.: +(90) 5325048444; fax: +(90) 4242388096.
    Tuncay Kuloğlu
    Footnotes
    3 Tel.: +(90) 5325048444; fax: +(90) 4242388096.
    Affiliations
    Department of Histology and Embryology, Firat University School of Medicine, Elazig, 23119, Turkey
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    6 Tel.: +(90) 5455111422; fax: +(90) 4242388096.
    Ibrahim Akdeniz
    Footnotes
    6 Tel.: +(90) 5455111422; fax: +(90) 4242388096.
    Affiliations
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Firat University School of Medicine, Elazig, 23119, Turkey
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    5 Tel.: +(90) 5059064962; fax: +(90) 4242388096.
    Meltem Yardim
    Footnotes
    5 Tel.: +(90) 5059064962; fax: +(90) 4242388096.
    Affiliations
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Yerköy State Hospital, Yozgat, 66900, Turkey
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    7 Tel.: +90 424 233 35 55/1443.
    Mustafa Yilmaz
    Footnotes
    7 Tel.: +90 424 233 35 55/1443.
    Affiliations
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Firat University Faculty of Medicine, Elazig, 23200, Turkey
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    8 Tel.: +(90) 5326083232; fax: +(90) 4242388096.
    Ahmet Kazez
    Footnotes
    8 Tel.: +(90) 5326083232; fax: +(90) 4242388096.
    Affiliations
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Firat University School of Medicine, Elazig, 23119, Turkey
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Tel.: +(90) 5057158716; fax: +(90) 4242388096.
    2 Tel.: +(90) 5066320100; fax: +(90) 4242388096.
    3 Tel.: +(90) 5325048444; fax: +(90) 4242388096.
    4 Tel.: +(90) 5334934643; fax: +(90) 4242388096.
    5 Tel.: +(90) 5059064962; fax: +(90) 4242388096.
    6 Tel.: +(90) 5455111422; fax: +(90) 4242388096.
    7 Tel.: +90 424 233 35 55/1443.
    8 Tel.: +(90) 5326083232; fax: +(90) 4242388096.
Published:September 16, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2021.09.013

      Summary

      Introduction

      Kidneys are the most frequently injured organ in the genitourinary system, but there is no specific biological marker for this trauma. Renalase may be a descriptive biomarker of the pathology that causes renal ischemia, nephrotoxicity, and acute renal failure.

      Objective

      This study investigated the role of serum and urine levels of renalase for the diagnosis of renal injury in rats with experimentally induced blunt renal trauma.

      Study design

      Thirty 3-month-old Sprague–Dawley adult male rats were divided into five groups (n = 6) as follows: control (Group 1), sham (Group 2), right nephrectomy (Group 3), left renal trauma (Group 4), and right nephrectomy plus left renal trauma (Group 5). Serum samples were acquired 3, 24 and 48 h post-trauma, and urine samples were acquired between 0–24 and 24–48 h post-trauma. Changes in serum and urine levels of renalase, dopamine, epinephrine, metanephrine, normetanephrine, urea, and creatinine were assessed after blunt renal trauma.

      Results

      No significant changes in serum levels of these compounds were observed at 3 h post-trauma in Groups 1 and 2 or in urine collected sequentially at 0–24 and 24–48 h. By contrast, levels of renalase, dopamine, metanephrine, and normetanephrine in serum increased during hour 3 in Groups 4 and 5. Moreover, increases in urine levels of renalase, dopamine, epinephrine, metanephrine, and normetanephrine were observed at hours 0–24 in Groups 4 and 5.

      Discussion

      A definitive diagnosis of traumatic renal injury in children is made with contrast-enhanced computed tomography. However, the scan results in high doses of radiation exposure to children. Here, we report for the first time that renalase levels may be useful as a biomarker for the diagnosis of renal injury due to blunt renal trauma.

      Conclusion

      Summary Figure
      Graphical AbstractRenalase levels in a) serum (3, 24, and 48 h) and b) urine (0–24 and 24–48 h).

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic and Personal
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Pediatric Urology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Xu J.
        • Li G.
        • Wang P.
        • Velazquez H.
        • Yao X.
        • Li Y.
        • et al.
        Renalase is a novel, soluble monoamine oxidase that regulates cardiac function and blood pressure.
        J Clin Invest. 2005; 115: 1275-1280
        • Boomsma F.
        • Tipton K.F.
        Renalase, a catecholamine-metabolising enzyme?.
        J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2007; 114: 775-776
        • Desir G.V.
        Renalase is a novel renal hormone that regulates cardiovascular function.
        J Am Soc Hypertens. 2007; 1: 99-103
        • Wang F.
        • Xing T.
        • Li J.
        • Bai M.
        • Hu R.
        • Zhao Z.
        • et al.
        Renalase's expression and distribution in renal tissue and cells.
        PLoS One. 2012; 7: E46442
        • Lee H.T.
        • Kim J.Y.
        • Kim M.
        • Wang P.
        • Tang L.
        • Baroni S.
        • et al.
        Renalase protects against ischemic AKI.
        J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013; 24: 445-455
        • Tsui A.
        • Lazarus J.
        • Sebastian van As A.B.
        Non-operative management of renal trauma in very young children: experiences from a dedicated South African paediatric trauma unit.
        Injury. 2012; 43: 1476-1481
        • Eassa W.
        • El-Ghar M.A.
        • Jednak R.
        • El-Sherbiny M.
        Nonoperative management of grade 5 renal injury in children: does it have a place?.
        Eur Urol. 2010; 57: 154-161
        • Heyns C.F.
        Renal trauma: indications for imaging and surgical exploration.
        BJU Int. 2004; 93: 1165-1170
        • Gaither T.W.
        • Awad M.A.
        • Leva N.V.
        • Murphy G.P.
        • Breyer B.N.
        • Copp H.L.
        Missed opportunities to decrease radiation exposure in children with renal trauma.
        J Urol. 2018; 199: 552-557
        • Hanbeyoğlu A.
        • Kazez A.
        • Ustündağ B.
        • Akpolat N.
        Determination of urinary N-acetyl-β-D glucosaminidase (NAG) levels in experimental blunt renal trauma.
        Turkish J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2011; 17: 475-481
        • Dent C.L.
        • Ma Q.
        • Dastrala S.
        • Bennett M.
        • Mitsnefes M.M.
        • Barasch J.
        • et al.
        Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin predicts acute kidney injury, morbidity and mortality after pediatric cardiac surgery: a prospective uncontrolled cohort study.
        Crit Care. 2007; 11: 127
        • Soni S.S.
        • Cruz D.
        • Bobek I.
        • Chionh C.Y.
        • Nalesso F.
        • Lentini P.
        • et al.
        NGAL: a biomarker of acute kidney injury and other systemic conditions.
        Int Urol Nephrol. 2010; 42: 141-150
        • Bennett M.
        • Dent C.L.
        • Ma Q.
        • Dastrala S.
        • Grenier F.
        • Workman R.
        • et al.
        Urine NGAL predicts severity of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery: a prospective study.
        Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008; 3: 665-673
        • Desir G.V.
        Role of renalase in the regulation of blood pressure and the renal dopamine system.
        Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2011; 20: 31-36
        • Desir G.V.
        • Peixoto A.J.
        Renalase in hypertension and kidney disease.
        Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014; 29 ([Li G]): 22-28
        • Li G.
        • Xu J.
        • Wang P.
        • Velazquez H.
        • Li Y.
        • Wu Y.
        • et al.
        Catecholamines regulate the activity, secretion, and synthesis of renalase.
        Circulation. 2008; 117: 1277-1282
        • Wang J.
        • Qi S.
        • Cheng W.
        • Li L.
        • Wang F.
        • Li Y.Z.
        • et al.
        Identification, expression and tissue distribution of a renalase homologue from mouse.
        Mol Biol Rep. 2008; 35: 613-620
        • Wybraniec M.T.
        • Bożentowicz-Wikarek M.
        • Chudek J.
        • Mizia-Stec K.
        Urinary renalase concentration in patients with preserved kidney function undergoing coronary angiography.
        Nephrology (Carlton). 2018; 23: 133-138
        • Xu J.
        • Desir G.V.
        Renalase, a new renal hormone: its role in health and disease.
        Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2007; 16: 373-378
        • Taranta-Janusz K.
        • Roszkowska R.
        • Wasilewska A.
        Renalase levels in children with solitary functioning kidney.
        Indian Pediatr. 2015; 52: 1047-1050