In utero myelomeningocele repair and incidence of lower urinary tract surgery. Results of a prospective study

      Summary

      Introduction

      The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of lower urinary tract surgery in patients with myelomeningocele (MMC) operated in utero as well as in the subgroup of patients with a minimum age of 5 years.

      Methods

      We use a previously published protocol to categorize bladder patterns and propose the treatment: high risk pattern-anticholinergics and clean intermittent catheterization (CIC); incontinent and normal patterns-clinical surveillance and underactivity pattern- CIC. Non-response to clinical treatment with maintenance of detrusor pressure higher than 40 cmH20 with worsening of hydronephrosis or recurrent urinary infection were imperative indications for surgery and urinary incontinence due to sphincter deficiency and leakage pressure below 40 cmH20 in patients aged 5 years and older were possible indications too. We identified the prevalence of urinary tract surgery and concomitant treatment of constipation and refractory fecal incontinence by convenience, the technique performed and surgery outcomes.

      Results

      A total of 122 patients are part of the prospective protocol. The first UE was performed in 119 patients (median age of 4 months). The categorization of the bladder pattern was high risk in 52.1%, incontinent in 25.2%, hypocontractile 4.2% and normal in 18.5%. Current follow-up was 29.9 months (1–99 months). Surgery was performed on 10 patients (8.4%): 3 vesicostomies, 2 surgeries to treat vesicoureteral reflux, 6 bladder augmentations, 3 ACE and a sling surgery. Considering only patients older than 5 years, we identified 65 patients and seven surgeries performed (10.8%).

      Discussion

      Most bladder reconstruction studies are case series of single institutions or cooperative services, most of which are retrospective. The prospective clinical interpretation and imaging and urodynamic exams over time allowed us prospectively to define the risk of surgery in patients with myelomeningocele operated in utero. It must be considered that the response to the initial urological treatment and even the failure that leads to the need for surgery have to be evaluated in a context of follow-up time. For this reason we have studied separately patients over 5 years-old and also the group considered to be at greatest risk for surgery, the high-risk group of the categorization already described.

      Conclusion

      Summary Figure
      Graphical AbstractContinent catheterizable ileal reservoir (Macedo's Technique) - procedure steps.

      Keywords

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