An investigation of the effects of amniotic fluid on experimental ischemia/reperfusion damage in rat testes



      Various agents have been tested as preventive treatments for ischemia/reperfusion (IR) damage. In this study, we have investigated for the first time in the literature the efficacy of injection of amniomax (AMX) into testicular parenchyma, which is a commercial medium of rat amniotic fluid, in preventing testicular IR damage related to testicular torsion.


      This study aims to evaluate whether or not amniomax has an effect on experimental IR damage in rat testes using biochemical and histopathological methods based on data in the literature. Even if testicular torsion is repaired surgically in early term injury because of de IR damage still occurs. Is it possible to reduce the ischemia reperfusion injury with amniotic fluid and increase the success of treatment?

      Study design

      40 male Wistar albino rats were included. Four groups were formed with 10 rats in each group: Sham, Ischemia/Reperfusion (IR), injection 1 min before detorsion (AMX-BD), injection 1 min after detorsion (AMX-AD). Total Oxidant Status (TOS) and Oxidative Stress Index (OSI) were computed for oxidative stress, and Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) levels were computed for the antioxidant system, for both serum and tissue. Necrosis and microcalcification levels were assessed in the evaluation of testicular histology. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


      AMX-AD group has low necrosis degree than IR, Mean serum and tissue levels of TAS, TOS, and OSI parameters were respectively determined as; for TAS: 0.64 ± 0.11 and 0.96 ± 0.25 mmol Trolox Equivalent/L; for TOS: 6.71 ± 0.87 and 9.40 ± 1.03 μmol H2O2 equivalent/L; for OSI: 11.94 ± 3.74 and 10.70 ± 4.23 arbitrary unit.


      Our study has investigated for the first time in the literature the efficacy of amniotic fluid in preventing testicular IR damage, and used amniomax (AMX) for this purpose. The limitation of our study may be the small number of rat in the groups.


      Summary Figure
      Graphical AbstractStatistical outcomes concerning necrosis and microcalcification for the three dependent groups (IR, AMX-BD, AMX-AD).


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