Advertisement

Testicular AQP1 expression in a rat model of testicular Ischemia–Reperfusion injury

Published:December 08, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2020.12.005

      Summary

      Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) is the archetype of all aquaporins and involved in rapid cellular water fluxes and cell volume regulation.

      An objective

      This study was conducted for the investigation of AQP1 expression in normal testicular tissues and those with I/R injury in a rat model.

      Study design

      A TT rat model was established using male Wister rats (4 weeks old, 180–220 g), and AQP1 distribution in the testicular tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. The wet/dry (W/D) weight ratios of the testes were determined at 12 h, 24 h, 36 h, 48 h, or 5 days after the establishment of the TT model. At each time point, pathological sections were prepared and the mRNA and protein expression levels of AQP1 were determined by RT-qPCR and Western blotting, respectively.

      Results

      Immunohistochemical staining indicated that AQP1 distributes in testicular vascular endothelial cells and interstitial connective tissues. The testicular edema was observed 12 and 24 h after TT, as indicated by the increase in wet/dry weight ratio and pathological changes, such as enlarged testicular interstitium, atrophy of spermatogenic tubules, and epineurium tubule exfoliation. Increase in the expression levels of Aqp1 mRNA and AQP1 protein levels peaked at 24 h. Edema was alleviated at 36 and 48 h, as manifested by the gradual thinning of the spermatogenic tubules epithelium with narrowed interstitium and weakened inflammatory cell infiltration. Meanwhile, the mRNA and protein levels of AQP1 dramatically decreased. At 5 days after TT, edema was nearly absent, and the mRNA and protein levels of AQP1 were restored to basal levels.

      Discussion

      Testicular torsion increases AQP1 expression and W/D ratios in testis tissues. The upregulation of AQP1 expression and decline in AQP1 level are consistent to the development and alleviation of edema in testis tissues that underwent testicular torsion.

      Conclusion

      Summary Figure

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Pediatric Urology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Cay A.
        • Alver A.
        • Kucuk M.
        • Isik O.
        • Eminagaoglu M.S.
        • Karahan S.C.
        • et al.
        The effects of N-acetylcysteine on antioxidant enzyme activities in experimental testicular torsion.
        J Surg Res. 2006; 131: 199-203
        • Anaya-Prado R.
        • Toledo-Pereyra L.H.
        • Lentsch A.B.
        • Ward P.A.
        Ischemia/reperfusion injury.
        J Surg Res. 2002; 105: 248-258
        • Unsal A.
        • Devrim E.
        • Guven C.
        • Eroglu M.
        • Durak I.
        • Bozoklu A.
        • et al.
        Propofol attenuates reperfusion injury after testicular torsion and detorsion.
        World J Urol. 2004; 22: 461-465
        • Schlomer B.J.
        • Keays M.A.
        • Grimsby G.M.
        • et al.
        Trans-scrotal near infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic test for testis torsion in pediatric acute scrotum: a prospective comparison to gold standard diagnostic test study.
        J Urol. 2017; 198: 694-701
        • Verkman A.S.
        Aquaporins. Curr Biol. 2013; 23: 52-55
        • Agre P.
        • Kozono D.
        Aquaporin water channels: molecular mechanisms for human diseases.
        FEBS Lett. 2003; 555: 72-78
        • Ma T.
        • Fukuda N.
        • Song Y.
        • Matthay M.A.
        • Verkman A.S.
        Lung fluid transport in aquaporin-5 knockout mice.
        J Clin Invest. 2000; 105: 93-100
        • Li X.Q.
        • Fang B.
        • Tan W.F.
        • Wang Z.L.
        • Sun X.J.
        • Zhang Z.L.
        • et al.
        miR-320a affects spinal cord edema through negatively regulating aquaporin-1 of blo-od-spinalco rd barrier during bimodal stage after ischemia reperfusion injury in rats.
        BMC Neurosci. 2016; 17: 10
        • Preston G.M.
        • Carroll T.P.
        • Guggino W.B.
        • Agre P.
        Appearance of water channels in Xenopus oocytes expressing red cell CHIP28 protein.
        Science. 1992; 256: 385-387
        • Agre P.
        • Preston G.M.
        • Smith B.L.
        • Jung J.S.
        • Raina S.
        • Moon C.
        • et al.
        Aquaporin CHIP: the archetypal molecular water channel.
        Am J Physiol. 1993; 265: F463-F476https://doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.1993.265.4.F463
        • Rump K.
        • Adamzik M.
        Function of aquaporins in sepsis: a systematic review.
        Cell Biosci. 2018; 8: 10https://doi.org/10.1186/s13578-018-0211-9
        • Wei S.M.
        • Yan Z.Z.
        • Zhou J.
        Protective effect of rutin on testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury.
        J Pediatr Surg. 2011; 46: 1419-1424
        • Johnsen S.G.
        Testicular biopsy score count-a method for registration of spermatogenesis in human testes: normal values and results in 355 hypogonadal males.
        Hormones (Basel). 1970; 1: 2-25
        • Luo H.M.
        • Hu S.
        • Zhou G.Y.
        • Bai H.Y.
        • Lu Y.
        • Wang H.B.
        • et al.
        The effects of ulinastatin on systemic inflammation, visceral vasopermeability and tissue water content in rats with scald injury.
        Burns. 2013; 39: 916-922
        • Tuglu D.
        • Yuvanc E.
        • Ozan T.
        • Bal F.
        • Yilmaz E.
        • Atasoy P.
        • et al.
        Protective effects of udenafil citrate, piracetam and dexmedetomidine treatment on testicular torsion/detorsion-induced ischaemia/reperfusion injury in rats.
        Andrologia. 2016; 48: 676-682
        • DaJusta D.G.
        • Granberg C.F.
        • Villanueva C.
        • Baker L.A.
        Contemporary review of testicular torsion: new concepts, emerging technologies and potential therapeutics.
        J Pediatr Urol. 2013; 9: 723-730
        • Lin P.T.
        • Chen W.H.
        • Zheng H.
        • Lai Z.M.
        • Zhang L.C.
        Involvement of AQP 1 in the cardio-protective effect of remifentanil post-conditioning in ischemia/reperfusion rats.
        Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015; 8: 12736-12745
        • Li L.
        • Weng Z.
        • Yao C.
        • Song Y.
        • Ma T.
        Aquaporin-1 deficiency protects against myocardial infarction by reducing both edema and apoptosis in mice.
        Sci Rep. 2015; 5: 13807
        • He Z.
        • Qiu J.
        • Li J.
        • Zhao D.
        • Chen G.
        • Chen L.
        Long-term effects of conversion from cyclosporine to rapamycin on testicular function and morphology in a rat transplantation model.
        Transplant Proc. 2013; 45: 763-769
        • Benga G.
        The first discovered water channel protein, later called aquaporin 1: molecular characteristics, functions and medical implications.
        Mol Aspect Med. 2012; 33: 518-534
        • Holmes R.P.
        The role of renal water channels in health and disease.
        Mol Aspect Med. 2012; 33: 547-552
        • Iandiev I.
        • Pannicke T.
        • Biedermann B.
        • Wiedemann P.
        • Reichenbach A.
        • Bringmann A.
        Ischemia-reperfusion alters the immunolocalization of glial aquaporins in rat retina.
        Neurosci Lett. 2006; 408: 108-112
        • Kim J.H.
        • Lee Y.W.
        • Park K.A.
        • Lee W.T.
        • Lee J.E.
        Agmatine attenuates brain edema through reducing the expression of aquaporin-1 after cerebral ischemia.
        J Cerebr Blood Flow Metabol. 2010; 30: 943-949
        • Ding J.Y.
        • Kreipke C.W.
        • Speirs S.L.
        • Schafer P.
        • Schafer S.
        • Rafols J.A.
        Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha signaling in aquaporin upregulation after traumatic brain injury.
        Neurosci Lett. 2009; 453: 68-72
        • Mohammadi M.T.
        • Dehghani G.A.
        Nitric oxide as a regulatory factor for aquaporin-1 and 4 gene expression following brain ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat.
        Pathol Res Pract. 2015; 211: 43-49
        • Semenza G.L.
        Regulation of mammalian O2 homeostasis by hypoxia-inducible factor 1.
        Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1999; 15: 551-578
        • Semenza G.L.
        Oxygen-regulated transcription factors and their role in pulmonary disease.
        Respir Res. 2000; 1: 159-162
        • Nesic O.
        • Lee J.
        • Unabia G.C.
        • Johnson K.
        • Ye Z.
        • Vergara L.
        • et al.
        Aquaporin 1 - a novel player in spinal cord injury.
        J Neurochem. 2008; 105: 628-640
        • Kaneko K.
        • Yagui K.
        • Tanaka A.
        • Yoshihara K.
        • Ishikawa K.
        • Takahashi K.
        • et al.
        Aquaporin 1 is required for hypoxia-inducible angiogenesis in human retinal vascular endothelial cells.
        Microvasc Res. 2008; 75: 297-301