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Definitions, indications and practice of urotherapy in children and adolescents: - A standardization document of the International Children's Continence Society (ICCS)

Published:November 05, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2020.11.006

      Summary

      Background

      Urotherapy is an umbrella term for all non-surgical, non-pharmacological interventions for lower urinary tract disorders (LUTD) in children and adolescents. Urotherapy is a specialized practice, which has become mainstay therapy not only for daytime urinary incontinence, but also for nocturnal enuresis, functional constipation and fecal incontinence. The aim of urotherapy is to achieve the normalization of the micturition and bowel pattern and to prevent further functional disturbances by repeated training. It is well known that in the treatment of adult and childhood incontinence a team approach is best, where there are shared areas of expertise and also discipline-specific expertise available.

      Aim

      We present a consensus view from a cross-professional team of experts affiliated with the International Children's Continence Society on definitions, indications and practice of urotherapy. This is a selective, non-systematic review with practical recommendations for the implementation and research on urotherapy.

      Methods

      The document uses the globally accepted ICCS terminology. Evidence-based literature serves as the basis, but in areas lacking in primary evidence, expert consensus is used. Before submission, a full draft was made available to all ICCS members for additional comments.

      Results

      Summary Figure 1
      Graphical AbstractDaytime urinary incontinence and enuresis.

      Keywords

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