How I do it| Volume 15, ISSUE 5, P570-573, October 2019

Totally fluoroless retrograde intrarenal surgery technique in prestented patients: tips and tricks


      Treatment of urolithiasis has evolved greatly as retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) has gained popularity nowadays being a gold standard therapy for renal stones up to 2 cm. Endourological procedures are traditionally fluoroscopic guided; thus, an increasing concern is the harm of radiation exposure, especially in the pediatric population. Therefore, performing fluoroless RIRS should be a feasible option for pediatric urologists. Herein, we describe the technique of totally fluoroless RIRS in presented patients and the tips to avoid radiation use at most.
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