Research Article| Volume 14, ISSUE 1, P65.e1-65.e4, February 2018

Comparison of intravesical (Cohen) and extravesical (Lich–Gregoir) ureteroneocystostomy in the treatment of unilateral primary vesicoureteric reflux in children

Published:October 13, 2017DOI:



      Various intravesical and extravesical techniques have been described for the surgical correction of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Among those techniques Cohen (intra-vesical) and Lich-Gregoir (extra-vesical) are the most commonly used ones. However, there are limited studies that compare those two surgical techniques in the literature.


      In this study, we aim to compare the outcomes of the open intravesical and extravesical procedures for unilateral primary VUR in children.


      We analyzed the records of 118 consecutive children with primary VUR who underwent open ureteral reimplantation surgery by single surgeon from January 2011 to October 2015 at our institution. Among them, intravesical reimplantation was group A, and extravesical reimplantation procedure was group B. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of both groups, including age, sex, preoperative reflux grade, presence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), operative time, postoperative complications and hospitalization period. Success of surgery was defined as the resolution of the VUR as determined by voiding cystourethrography 6 -12 months after surgery. All the parameters were statistically compared.


      A total of 58 patients were found eligible for the study. In 23 cases intravesical (group A) and in 35 cases extravesical (group B) procedure were performed. The operative time in group A was significantly higher than group B (110.3±16.9 and 87±29.8 min, respectively, p = 0.002). The mean hospital stay was also longer in group A (2.8±0.8 and 1.2±0.6 days, respectively, p = 0.007). The ureteral catheterization periods were 14.1±6.1 days for group A and there was no ureteral catheter placement in group B. The success rate of the two groups were comparable (100% vs 94.9%, p = 0.513). No intraoperative complications were detected in either group. The number of febrile urinary tract infections were similar between the groups after a mean follow up of 18.2 months (p = 0.746).


      Our results confirmed that both Cohen and Lich-Gregoir procedures had equivalent success and complication rates. Lich-Gregoir technique was found superior to Cohen technique in terms of hospital stay and operative time. Moreover, it avoids the necessity of urethral and ureteral stenting which probably might increase the comfort of the patients postoperatively. The main limitations of our study are unrecorded pain scores and amount of analgesics taken the after surgery and retrospective analysis of the data.


      TablePatient demographics.
      Cohen (n = 23) Lich–Gregoir (n = 35) p
      Age (years) (Mean + SD) (range) 4.6 ± 1.6 (1–7) 7.6 ± 4.2 (3–17) 0.002
      M/F ratio 17/6 2/33 <0.001
      Prior endoscopic injection (n) 13/23 19/35 0.866
      Reflux grade 3.4 ± 0.6 (3–5) 3.9 ± 0.5 (3–5) 0.870
      Split kidney function (%) 41.5 ± 10.8 (32–49) 34.5 ± 10.1 (28–45) 0.242
      Anticholinergic usage (%) 6 (26.1%) 16 (45.7%) 0.132


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